A voluntary procedure that can be followed by conciliation if both parties agree and request the appointment of a mediator by the Minister of Labour. This process is intended to help the parties reach an interim agreement, usually during the period between the issuance of a “no board” report and the start of a legal strike or lockout. Mediation may also continue during a strike or lockout, if both parties agree. The Ombudsman plays essentially the same role as the conciliator and is often the same person, but not necessarily. Collective bargaining can only take place if the parties concerned have mutually recognised each other for this purpose.20 Such recognition may be voluntary, as is the case in some countries where it is based on agreements or good practice. In Sweden, around 90% of employees are covered by collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden has no legislation on minimum wages or laws to extend collective agreements to disorganized employers. Unorganized employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many are not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to companies and workers covered by collective agreements.  UNITE HERE, the trade union for the hotel and hospitality sector, has developed model negotiations with large hotel chains that are approaching national negotiations. The benefits of this approach are reflected in what UNITE HERE members were able to achieve at Marriott Corporation in the fall of 2018. Seven UNITE HERE residents at seven sites — Detroit, Boston, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, San Diego, and Hawaii — negotiated separate contracts, but as previous collective agreements expired at the same time, workers had more influence than they would have had if they had negotiated on a single site.
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