Sir Humphrey Appleby (Nigel Hawthorne) serves throughout the series as Permanent Secretary under his minister Jim Hacker in the Department of Administrative Affairs. He was appointed cabinet secretary when Hacker`s party entered a leadership crisis and was instrumental in Hacker`s rise to prime minister. He pledged to maintain the status quo for the country in general and for the civil service in particular.  Sir Humphrey is a master of obfuscation and manipulation, disconcerting his opponents with jargon and long-wind paraphrases, strategically appointing allies to supposedly impartial bodies, and setting up inter-departmental committees to stifle his minister`s proposals in the bureaucracy. In West Germany, the three yes minister series were broadcast in 1987 (German title Yes Minister), and the first series of Yes, Prime Minister in 1988 (German title Yes Prime Minister) on the national public broadcaster ARD; Rehearsals took place in the 1990s on some regional public channels.   They were broadcast bilingually, allowing owners of a stereo set to choose between the German overdub and the original English sound. Each episode has been shortened by about 5 minutes to allow time for the continuity speaker, as was customary at the time. The second season of Yes Prime Minister was never broadcast in Germany, so there is no German overdub and no German episode titles for that. The German DVD release (December 2013) reflects these changes; It contains the entire episodes, but during the edited parts, it returns the German tone to English, and it skips the second series of Yes Prime Minister.  The books The Complete Yes Minister and The Complete Yes, Prime Minister have also been translated into German as Yes Minister (ISBN 3-442-08636-1) and Yes Prime Minister (ISBN 3-442-08892-5). Japan has agreed to limit the number of passports it will issue to male and domestic workers to 400. Four categories of immigrants would continue to be allowed to enter Canada: returning residents and their wives, children and parents; immigrants employed by Japanese residents in Canada for personal and domestic services; workers approved by the Canadian government; and agricultural workers under contract with Japanese landowners in Canada. .